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The IT Team recently implemented a Unified Communication Service to provide conferencing for the organization. The UCS Application server is running from a virtual machine named VM1-UCS. Due to the nature of the UCS. the traffic for VM1-UCS has a higher Class of Service (CoS) demand.
In order to meet demand bandwidth for VM1 hosting the UCS. you been have given the task to improve performance by isolating the traffic and configuring CoS for this VM.
Your first task is to connect VM1-UCS to the distributed port group. UCS-Portgroup.
Your second task is to tag and mark the traffic for VM1-UCS with the following parameters:
* Name: UCS Network Traffic
* CoS Value: 4
* DSCP Value: 34
* Traffic Direction: Ingress/Egress
* Traffic Qualifier: System Traffic - Virtual Machine
The IT Team noticed that some of the parameter where not available on the distributed switch. Troubleshoot why these settings are missing and fix it.

  • A. Send us your suggestions.

Answer: A


You are tasked to automate the installation and deployment of new host added into your company vSphere cluster using Auto Deploy. Ensure Auto Deploy and Image Builder is set to start automatically every time vCenter Server is restarted. Use the web client and VCSA0la to perform this step.
Confirm that the auto deploy plugin is available in the web interface. You may be required to logout and log back in after enabling the services.
The vCenter server is required to retrieve software from an online depot. You are to use the depot provided below and ensure that Auto Deploy is always running even, with restart of vCenter server.
Name FirstDepot
URL https / / hostupdate.vmware.com/software/VUB/PRODUCTION/main/vmw-depot-index.xml Note: ignore error that you received on cannot connect to depot. This is expected due to vCSA do not have internet connection.
Create a deploy Rule on VCSA0la based on information below. You do not need to apply to any host at this time.
Name: Rule1
Specify Rule to match Vendor: Dell
Check 'Do Not Include Image Profile"
Check 'Do Not Include Host Profile"
Select host location: Choose cluster PROD-A


Before you can use vSphere ESXi Image Builder with the vSphere Web Client, you must verify that the service is enabled and running.
Log in to your vCenter Server system by using the vSphere Web Client.
On the vSphere Web Client Home page, click Administration.
Under System Configuration click Services.
Select ImageBuilder Service, click the Actions menu, and select Edit Startup Type.
On Windows, the vSphere ESXi Image Builder service is disabled. In the Edit Startup Type window, select Manual or Automatic to enable Auto Deploy.
On the vCenter Server Appliance, the vSphere ESXi Image Builder service by default is set to Manual. If you want the service to start automatically upon OS startup, select Automatic.
If you select the manual startup type, you must start the service manually upon OS startup every time you want to use the service.
(Optional) Click the Start the service icon.
(Optional) If you want to use vSphere ESXi Image Builder with thevSphere Web Client, log out of the vSphere Web Client and log in again.
The Auto Deploy icon is visible on the Home page of the vSphere Web Client.


A user has approached you about a virtual machine with the name infra-1 that is performing poorly on the vCenter Server vcsa0l a. In order to analyze the data offline, your team requires the esxtop data from the problem host with the following requirements:
* The esxtop data must be in CSV format
* The data must contain 20 iterations with a delay
Once captured, copy the results CSV file from the destination datastore on the host to the Desktop of the ControlCenter VM with the filename "esxiOlb-capture.csv'.
Note: WindSCP is installed on the Controller.


Do the following before you start to troubleshoot a problem using esxtop: 1. Log on to the VMware Management Interface for the ESX Server machine in question. Refer to the online document, Logging Into the VMware Management Interface, for details. In the status monitor, under Virtual Machines, note the virtual machine IDs (or VMIDs) for all virtual machines running on the server.
2. Make certain you have an secure shell (SSH) client. Windows users can get a free SSH client from http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/download.html. 3. If you have ESX Server version 2.0.x, refer to the VMware Knowledge Base Answer ID 1078 for instructions on downloading and installing the VMware performance monitoring tools, esxtop and vmkusage. ESX Server version 2.1 and higher include esxtop and vmkusage. See Using vmkusage to Isolate Performance Problems on page 6 for a description of vmkusage. Starting esxtop Perform the following steps to start and set up esxtop
1. Using a secure shell (SSH), log on to the ESX Server machine as root. 2. Enter esxtop in the SSH command line. The esxtop display appears.
Note: The esxtop tool includes several interactive commands. To view a list of the interactive commands, enter h. 3. Enter the f command. The Field Select page appears
4. Enter r to toggle on the SWPD field.
5. Press any key other than a through x to see the esxtop display again
Note: You can also run esxtop in batch mode. For example, use the command: [root]# esxtop -b -n iterations > logfile. For detailed command reference information, enter man esxtop on the SSH command line. Examining CPU Usage This section describes how to assess system CPU loading, percentage of individual CPU use and individual virtual machine CPU use. Load Average Line Examine the load average on the first line to determine the amount of use for all physical CPUs on the ESX Server machine. The load averages are displayed for five-second, and one-, five- and fifteen-minute intervals. A load average of 1.00 means that the ESX Server machine's physical CPUs are fully utilized, and a load average of 0.5 means they are half utilized. On the other hand, a load average of 2.00 means that you either need to increase the number of CPUs or decrease the number of virtual machines running on the ESX Server machine because the system as a whole is overloaded.
PCPU Line Examine the PCPU line for the percentage of individual physical CPU use for CPU0 and CPU1 respectively (for a dual-processor machine). The last value is the average percentage for all of the physical CPUs. As a rule of thumb, 80.00% is a desirable usage percentage, but bear in mind that different organizations have varying standards with respect to how close to capacity they run their servers. 90% should be considered a warning that the CPUs are approaching an overloaded condition.
You can enter the interactive c command to toggle the display of the PCPU line. If hyperthreading is enabled, the LCPU line appears whenever the PCPU line is displayed. The LCPU line shows the logical CPU use. Virtual Machine CPU Usage A virtual machine world is listed as vmm in the WTYPE column. The world ID (WID) corresponds to the VMID in the VMware Management Interface Status Monitor (see Getting Started on page 2). For virtual machines with one virtual CPU (VCPU), the VCPUID and WID is the same. For virtual machines with two VCPUs, there are two VCPUIDs associated with one WID. For example:
Use the WID and VMID values as cross references to identify a specific virtual machine's display name. Use the following steps to assess virtual machine CPU usage. 1. Examine the %READY field for the percentage of time that the virtual machine was ready but could not get scheduled to run on a physical CPU. Under normal operating conditions this value should remain under 5%. 2. Examine the %USED field for the percentage of physical CPU resources used by a VCPU. If the physical CPUs are running at full capacity, you can use %USED to identify a virtual machine that is using a large amount of physical CPU resources. 3. Examine the %EUSED field for the percentage of the maximum physical CPU resource usage a virtual machine is currently using. The %EUSED value is calculated as follows: %EUSED = %USED *((# of VCPUs * 100)/ max) In this formula: # of VCPUs is the number of VCPUs configured in a virtual machine. max is the maximum percentage of CPU resources allocated to a virtual machine. The default is 100. The following table shows how %EUSED increases as the value of max decreases for a virtual machine with a constant physical CPU usage of 40% (i.e., %USED = 40).
%EUSED is an useful indicator of how close a virtual machine is to saturating the physical CPUs. If a virtual machine consistently saturates the physical CPUs (i.e., it uses 100% of the physical CPU resources), you can fix it by either: * Decreasing the number of virtual machines running on an ESX Server machine.
* Moving the virtual machine to a different ESX Server machine that has more physical CPU resources, and increasing the value of max. Assessing Memory Usage Look at the percentage of maximum memory actively used by a virtual machine listed in the %MEM column. Also, note the amount of swapped memory used by a virtual machine listed the SWPD column. Using some swap space is not necessarily bad, because the pages swapped out could be inactive; however, the use of swap space is a clue that you could be losing performance due to active swapping. If the swap percentage increases, there could be a performance problem. If the maximum system memory or swap space is exceeded, additional virtual machines will not power up and you may need to reconfigure memory and swap space. Assessing Disk and Network Usage Examine the DISK and NIC lines for disk activity. If the throughput is either not meeting expectations or approaching the maximum capacity of the hardware device, there is a potential for a performance bottleneck. Exiting esxtop Enter q to exit esxtop


The company's IT strategy is to adopt innovative and emerging technologies such as software-defined storage solution. The IT team has decided to run their business-critical workloads on an all-flash Virtual SAN (vSAN) as it provides excellent performance.
The IT team has purchased servers that are compatible with vSAN. However, all the solid-state drives (SSD) in the servers are shown incorrectly as hard-disk drives (HDD) instead.
In addition, some of the solid-state drives (SSD) will be used for other purposes instead of vSAN and should not be part of the vSAN cluster. These are the requirements for the vSAN cluster:
* In each server, use the 3GB SSD as the cache tier and the 11GB SSD as the capacity tier
* As a result the vSAN cluster will use a total of six SSDs (three SSDs for caching and three SSDs for capacity
* Ensure all the disks that will be used for vSAN are shown correctly as SSDs
* Provide storage savings by using deduplication and compression.
Next, the IT team wants to improve the performance and availability of the business-critical workloads on the vSAN-datastore.
Ensure the following configurations will be applied on existing and new workloads located on vSAN-datastore:
Number of disk stripes per object: 2
Primary level of failures to tolerate: 2
Failure tolerance method: RAID-1 (Mirroring)
Force provisioning; Yes
The new configurations should be applied by default.
You may create new storage policy but do not edit the default vSAN storage policy as it may be used by other vSAN clusters in the future. Name the policy "New vSAN Default'.
Note: All tasks should be executed in PROD-A host cluster.


VMware vSphere ESXi can use locally attached SSDs (Solid State Disk) and flash devices in multiple ways. Since SSDs offer much higher throughput and much lower latency than traditional magnetic hard disks the benefits are clear. While offering lower throughput and higher latency, flash devices such as USB or SATADOM can also be appropriate for some use cases. The potential drawback to using SSDs and flash device storage is that the endurance can be significantly less than traditional magnetic disks and it can vary based on the workload type as well as factors such as the drive capacity, underlying flash technology, etc.
This KB outlines the minimum SSD and flash device recommendations based on different technologies and use case scenarios.
SSD and Flash Device Use Cases
A non-exhaustive survey of various usage models in vSphere environment are listed below.
Host swap cache
This usage model has been supported since vSphere 5.1 for SATA and SCSI connected SSDs. USB and low end SATA or SCSI flash devices are not supported.
The workload is heavily influenced by the degree of host memory over commitment.
Regular datastore
A (local) SSD is used instead of a hard disk drive.
This usage model has been supported since vSphere 7.0 for SATA and SCSI connected SSDs.
There is currently no support for USB connected SSDs or for low end flash devices regardless of connection type.
vSphere Flash Read Cache (aka Virtual Flash)
This usage model has been supported since vSphere 5.5 for SATA and SCSI connected SSDs.
There is no support for USB connected SSDs or for low end flash devices.
This usage model has been supported since vSphere 5.5 for SATA and SCSI SSDs. For more information, see the vSAN Hardware Quick Reference Guide.
vSphere ESXi Boot Disk
A USB flash drive or SATADOM or local SSD can be chosen as the install image for ESXi, the vSphere hypervisor, which then boots from the flash device.
This usage model has been supported since vSphere 3.5 for USB flash devices and vSphere 4.0 for SCSI/SATA connected devices.
Installation to SATA and SCSI connected SSD, SATADOM and flash devices creates a full install image which includes a logging partition (see below) whereas installation to a USB device creates a boot disk image without a logging partition.
vSphere ESXi Coredump device
The default size for the coredump partition is 2.5 GiB which is about 2.7 GB and the installer creates a coredump partition on the boot device device for vSphere 5.5 and above. After installation the partition can be resized if necessary using partedUtil. For more information, see the vSphere documentation.
Any SATADOM or SATA/SCSI SSD may be configured with a coredump partition.
This usage model has been supported from vSphere 3.5 for boot USB flash devices and since vSphere 4.0 for any SATA or SCSI connected SSD that is local.
This usage model also applies to Autodeploy hosts which have no boot disk.
vSphere ESXi Logging device
A SATADOM or local SATA/SCSI SSD is chosen as the location for the vSphere logging partition (/scratch partition). This partition may be but need not be on the boot disk and this applies to Autodeploy hosts which lack a boot disk.
This usage model has been supported since vSphere 7.0 for any SATA or SCSI connected SSD that is local. SATADOMs that meet the requirement set forth in Table 1 are also supported.
This usage model can be supported in a future release of vSphere for USB flash devices that meet the requirement set forth in Table 1.
SSD Endurance Criteria
The flash industry often uses Tera Bytes Written (TBW) as a benchmark for SSD endurance. TBW is the number of terabytes that can be written to the device over its useful life. Most devices have distinct TBW ratings for sequential and random IO workloads, with the latter being much lower due to Write Amplification Factor (WAF) (defined below). Other measures of endurance commonly used are DWPD (Drive Writes Per Day) and P/E (Program/Erase) cycles.
Conversion formulas are provided here:
Converting DWPD (Drive Writes Per Day) to TBW (Terabytes Written):
TBW = DWPD * Warranty (in Years) * 365 * Capacity (in GB) / 1,000 (GB per TB) Converting Flash P/E Cycles per Cell to TBW (Terabytes Written):
TBW = Capacity (in GB) * (P/E Cycles per Cell) / (1,000 (GB per TB) * WAF) WAF is a measure of the induced writes caused by inherent properties of flash technology. Due to the difference between the storage block size (512 bytes), the flash cell size (typically 4KiB or 8KiB bytes) and the minimum flash erase size of many cells one write can force a number of induced writes due to copies, garbage collection, etc. For sequential workloads typical WAFs fall in the range of single digits while for random workloads WAFs can approach or even exceed 100. Table 1 contains workload characterization for the various workloads excepting the Datastore and vSphere Flash Read Cache workloads which depend on the characteristics of the Virtual Machines workloads being run and thus cannot be characterized here. A WAF from the table can be used with the above P/E to TBW formula.