- High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)
Blood pressure is the force exerted by the blood on the walls of the arteries. In humans, blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg). Hypertension is defined as having a systolic blood pressure greater than 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure greater than 90 mmHg. Hypertension is classified into four categories based on severity: mild, moderate, severe, and extreme. Mild hypertension occurs when both systolic and diastolic blood pressures are between 120 and 139 mmHg and 140 and 89 mmHg respectively. Moderate hypertension occurs when either systolic or diastolic blood pressures range from 140 to 159 mmHg and 90 to 99 mmHg respectively. Severe hypertension occurs when systolic blood pressure is 160 mmHg or higher or diastolic blood pressur is 100 mmHg or higher. Extreme hypertension occurs when systole blood pressure is 180 mmHg or higher and/or diastolic blood pressure is 110 mmHg or higher.
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- Causes of high blood pressure
There are several factors that contribute to the development of hypertension. These include genetics, age, gender, race, environment, lifestyle, and medical conditions. Genetics play a role in determining whether someone develops hypertension. Age is also a contributing factor. Older adults tend to have higher blood pressures than younger adults. Gender influences how much blood pressure increases with age. Women generally experience more rapid increases in blood pressure than men do. Race also affects blood pressure. African Americans tend to develop hypertension at lower rates than Caucasians. Environmental factors include exposure to chemicals, radiation, and toxins. Medical conditions that increase blood pressure include obesity, diabetes, sleep apnea, and certain types of cancer.
- Treatment of high blood pressure
Treatment options for high blood pressure include lifestyle changes, medication, surgery, and endovascular procedures. Lifestyle modifications include weight loss, exercise, and dietary changes. Medications commonly prescribed for treatment of high blood pressure include angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, alpha adrenergic receptor antagonists, and thiazide diuretics. Surgery includes renal artery stenosis repair, carotid endarterectomy, and coronary revascularization. Endovascular procedures include percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and stenting.
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- Relationship between high blood pressure and hypertension
There is a strong relationship between high blood pressure and the presence of hypertension. A study published in *JAMA Internal Medicine* found that among patients who had no history of cardiovascular disease, those with untreated hypertension were more likely to develop heart failure compared with those without hypertension. The same study showed that among patients with known cardiovascular disease, those with treated hypertension were less likely to experience heart failure compared with those with untreated hypertension. Another study published in *Circulation* found that among patients with diabetes mellitus, those with uncontrolled hypertension were at increased risk of developing diabetic nephropathy compared with those with controlled hypertension.
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- Hypertension (high blood pressure) is defined as having systolic blood pressure greater than 140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure greater than 90 mm Hg. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
- High blood pressure is associated with increased mortality due to coronary heart disease, stroke, congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and end-stage renal disease.
- Hypertension is the leading cause of death worldwide. In the United States alone, nearly 1 billion people have high blood pressure.
- Hypertension affects about 50 million Americans.
- Hypertension is responsible for approximately $45 billion in annual medical costs.
- Hypertension is treatable, but only half of those who need treatment receive it.
- Hypertension is preventable.
- Hypertension is reversible if caught early enough.
- Hypertension is not hereditary.
- Hypertension is caused by lifestyle choices.
- Hypertension is linked to obesity.
- Hypertension is often overlooked.
- Hypertension is underdiagnosed.
- Hypertension is overdiagnosed.
High blood pressure is a serious condition that requires early diagnosis and treatment. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Patients should be screened regularly for signs of hypertension. If it is detected, appropriate treatment should be initiated immediately.